This method is best for separating a liquid from a solution. In a way, the concept is similar
to evaporation, but in this case, the vapor is collected by condensation. For example, if
you want to separate water from a salt solution, simple distillation would be great for this.
For example: to separate pure water from a salt solution, it works like this:
A beaker of the salt solution is heated to the boiling point of the liquid. As it boils, the liquid
turns into vapor (gas). The vapor is directed through tubes (condenser) connected to another
beaker. As the vapor goes through the tube, it is cooled down by running cold water around
the tubes. This forces the temperature of the vapor to fall, causing the gas to turn into liquid
again (condensation). The liquid is pure at this point, as it is free from salt.
The process continues until all the liquid in the solution turns into vapor, leaving the salt
residue. The distilled liquid is called a ‘Distillate’