Winds come in all directions or speeds. They are measured by their directions and speeds.
Depending on the cause of the winds, they can blow in many directions. Some good examples of wind direction are the Easterly winds, which blow from east to west, and westerly winds which blow from west to east. There are also winds that blow from the north, southwards and also those from the south blowing northwards.
Anemometers measure the direction of winds. They come in different models but use a similar principle — cups on a bar! It simply works like this: the faster the wind, the faster the cups rotate. The speed of the rotating cups is measured by a speedometer.
The Weather Vane
Another instrument in wind measurement is the wind vane. It involves a pointer mounted on a vertical shaft. When the wind blows, the arm sways until the pointer faces the direction of the wind.
These days, there are some really cool technology that meteorologists use to measure air pressure, speeds and direction. But traditionally, there is an instrument called a Barometer, which is made up of mercury (a special liquid metal) with some reading on it. Simple, the mercury is pushed up when air pressure increases.
The reading is recorded in inches of mercury (Hg) and they are converted to millibars (mb) as the data is recorded on maps and other records.